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| Last Updated:: 29/05/2017

Hydrogeology of Uttar Pradesh



Diverse Setup:

                           The State Of U.P., predominantly covered with Gangetic alluvium, is characterised by varied hydrogeology formations, ranging in geological age from Archean to Recent that have resulted from diversified geological, climatological and topographic setups. These formations, along with space-time variable annual water cycle, govern ground water repositories in respective river basins of the state. The major portion of the state is covered by Ganga basin, comprising Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghra, Gandak and Son sub basins, including rocky terrain of Bundelkhand. The mountain chain of the Himalayas in the north with high run off plays an important role in passive recharging of the vast Ganga basin.


                          Due to diverse hydrogeological and geomorphological setups, spatial and temporal distribution of ground water availability are non-uniform and range from plenty in alluvial plain to scarce in Bundelkhand.


                         The state can be broadly divided into four major hydrogeological units, characterized by different ground water conditions, namely-

·         Terai  zone

·         Central Ganga Alluvial Plain

·         Marginal Alluvial Plain

·         Southern Peninsular zone

·         The small part of Bijnor and Saharanpur districts fall in ‘Bhabhar Zone’, which extends south of mountainous range of Himalayas.


The alluvial formations comprise Multi-aquifer system, explored down to 600-700 m., promises excessive and productive ground water resources.


The peninsular shield comprises discontinuous aquifers of limited potential in weathered and fissured sediments.


The ground water yield potential in the state bu geographic region is briefly outlined below:-


(i)                   Bhabhar Zone : Fringing the foothills, the aquifer are inter granular deposits capable of yielding moderate discharge through tube wells to a depth of 250 m. Ground water table is deep, the maximum being in the range of 80 to 90 meter below land surface.  (Formations: Boulder and pebbles)


(ii)                Tarai zone : The plain in front of Bhabhar belt has capacity to produce a yield potential by tube wells of the order of 20-40 lps between depth of 150-300m  (Formations : Alluvium, Fine Sediments)


(iii)               Central Ganga Plain: The aquifers within 100 m, depth produce discharge of 10-20 lps, and those beyond 300 m and upto 450 m are multi layered aquifers with higher yield of 40 lps and above. This unit comprises larger portion of the state.  (Formations : Alluvium)


       (iv)           Marginal Alluvial Plain: This zone provide moderate yield by tube well to a depth of 100-150 m, underlain                                by hard rock basement.  (Formation: Alluvium)


      (v)           Bundelkhand Region: The area characterized by varied geomorphic features/land forms, is having                                           relatively low ground water yield potential, hence scarcity of ground water prevails in Bundelkhand.

     (Formation: Pre-Cambrian rocks, Vindhyan Sediments and Colluvium)